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HPAI and Dairy Cattle

LATEST NEWS: USDA, HHS Announce New Actions to Reduce Impact and Spread of H5N1

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) Detections in Livestock

On Monday, March 25, 2024, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) confirmed the detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in two dairy herds in Texas and two dairy herds in Kansas that had cattle exhibiting decreased lactation, low appetite, and other symptoms.

USDA has since confirmed the presence of HPAI other states. For the latest on the HPAI detection in dairy cattle, visit the USDA website.

Symptoms

  • Decreased milk production
  • Reduced appetite
  • Thickened, discolored milk
  • Lethargy
  • Fever
  • Dehydration

Biosecurity

  1. Work with your veterinarian to establish a biosecurity plan, or contact our office if you would like additional information on biosecurity programs.
  2. Keep poultry and birds separate from other species. Goats in Minnesota are believed to have contracted HP AI from infected chicken and ducks that shared water and feed.
  3. Limit wild bird exposure, especially waterfowl, to your cattle. This includes keeping birds out of feed and water sources wherever possible. The current information suggests there may be multiple cases of wild bird introduction.
  4. Keep a closed herd. Don't introduce new animals unless necessary. If new animals need to be added, bring them in from known and trusted sources. Keeping incoming cows isolated from the main herd for at least 21-30 days would be highly advised. A Michigan dairy had apparently healthy animals arrive that broke and spread disease into the herd a few days after arrival.
  5. Monitor for changes in milk production as outlined below. Affected areas are reporting decreases in rumination, feed intake and a drop in milk production in infected cattle.
  6. Dispose of milk from sick cows. It is important to note pasteurization will destroy the influenza virus in milk. Commercial dairy products sold in the store can be assured safe due to pasteurization.

Information For Dairy Producers and Farmworkers
Guidelines: Dairy Cattle Testing for Avian Influenza in ND
USDA-APHIS Factsheet: USDA Support for Producers with Affected Dairy Premises
National Milk Producers Federation HPAI Resources
Dairy Biosecurity Recommendations - HPAI and More
FARM Biosecurity
Joint Dairy Organization Statement on HPAI in Cows
FDA Q&A Regarding Milk Safety During HPAI Outbreaks
USDA: APHIS Recommendations for HPAI (H5N1) Virus in Livestock
USDA: APHIS Recommendations for HPAI (H5N1) Virus in Livestock - For Workers
ND Health & Human Services: Avian Influenza Protection for Farmworkers

Information for Consumers
CDC Recommendations for the Public
FDA Q&A Regarding Milk Safety During HPAI Outbreaks
FDA Information on Raw Milk
USDA: Detection of HPAI (H5N1) in Dairy Herd FAQs

HPAI and Birds

The Latest on HPAI Confirmations in Commercial and Backyard Flocks

With the recent detections of the Eurasian H5 strain of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in wild birds and domestic poultry in the United States, bird owners should review their biosecurity practices and stay vigilant to protect poultry and pet birds from this disease. The North Dakota Department of Agriculture is working closely with USDA-APHIS on surveillance, reporting and control efforts.

This page will be updated Monday - Friday at noon each day.

HPAI Poultry/Bird Event Restrictions Map

Restrictions related to Co-mingling events in counties with an active control zone and for birds and producers residing within counties or any county that is affected by an active control zone.

How HPAI cases are identified and announced:

There are several steps involved in confirming a poultry flock is positive for a highly pathogenic strain of avian influenza. Here is an outline of the process, which includes timing of public notification:

  1. A poultry producer or backyard flock owner notices unexplained death loss or other signs of illness in his/her birds.
     
  2. The individual notifies their veterinarian or an animal health official.
     
  3. Samples are collected from the birds on the premises.
     
  4. Samples are submitted to the North Dakota State University (NDSU) Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for preliminary testing.
     
  5. The NDSU Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory determines if the samples are positive for an H5 or H7 influenza virus.
    • If samples are positive for an H5 or H7 virus, they are considered as presumptive positives and are forwarded to the National Veterinary Services Laboratory (NVSL) in Ames, Iowa. NVSL is the only laboratory in the United States that is authorized to officially confirm the presence of a HPAI and identify the specific strain of virus.
       
  6. Once NVSL confirms HPAI, the USDA posts updates on its website.

MORE INFORMATION ON AVIAN INFLUENZA

Flock Owner Support

Farmers/ranchers and their family members experience pressure from all directions. We urge anyone struggling mentally or financially from this HPAI outbreak to reach out for assistance if needed:

  • Call 211: a statewide 24-hour helpline
  • National Suicide Prevention Lifeline: 1-800-273-TALK (8255)
  • Reach out to a loved one, friend or clergy member
  • Refer yourself or anyone you have concerns about to a local health-care provider or local mental health professional.

Visit the NDSU Managing Stress Hub for more information and resources.

 

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2023 HPAI Cases in North Dakota

2023 HPAI Cases in North Dakota

Date Confirmed
County
Flock Type
Control Zone Status
12/28/2023McIntoshBackyard Mixed FlockReleased 1/28/2024
11/28/2023DickeyBackyard Chicken FlockReleased 1/3/2024
11/27/2023EmmonsBackyard Chicken FlockReleased 12/27/2023
11/24/2023DickeyCommercial Turkey FlockReleased 1/3/2024
11/14/2023McIntoshBackyard ChickenReleased 12/21/2023
11/13/2023
LaMoureCommercial Turkey FlockReleased 12/22/2023
11/9/2023
McIntoshBackyard Chicken FlockReleased 12/11/2023
10/12/2023
Golden ValleyBackyard Mixed FlockReleased 11/14/2023
10/11/2023
WilliamsBackyard Chicken FlockReleased 11/14/2023
4/17/2023
DickeyCommercial Turkey FlockReleased 6/1/2023

Total number of sites affected: 10 
Total number of counties: 6

Accordion Section Title
2022 HPAI Cases in North Dakota

2022 HPAI Cases in North Dakota

Date Confirmed
County
Flock Type
Control Zone Status
11/9/2022
Mountrail
Backyard Chicken Flock
Released 12/6/22
11/8/2022
Ward
Backyard Chicken Flock
Released 12/6/22
11/2/2022
Bottineau
Backyard Mixed Flock
Released 12/5/22
10/15/2022
Traill
Backyard Mixed Flock
Released 10/31/22
9/29/2022
Nelson
Backyard Chicken Flock
Released 10/20/22
9/25/2022
Ransom
Commercial Turkey/Chicken
Released 10/27/22
9/21/2022
Ward
Backyard Chicken Flock
Released 10/6/22
8/31/2022
Cass
Backyard Chicken Flock
Released 9/28/22
6/7/2022
McHenry
Backyard Mixed Flock
Released 6/17/22
5/17/2022
Burke
Backyard Chicken Flock
Released 6/10/2022
4/26/2022
Richland
Backyard Chicken Flock
Released 5/16/2022
4/21/2022
Renville
Backyard Mixed Flock
Released 5/6/2022
4/21/2022
Richland
Commercial Turkey
Released 5/16/2022
4/19/2022
Stutsman
Backyard Chicken Flock
Released 5/4/2022
4/14/2022
LaMoure
Backyard Chicken Flock
Released 5/6/2022
4/13/2022
Barnes
Backyard Mixed Flock
Released 5/12/2022
4/12/2022
Sheridan
Backyard Mixed Flock
Released 5/4/2022
4/8/2022
Stutsman
Backyard Mixed Flock
Released 5/12/2022
4/5/2022
Cass
Backyard Mixed Flock
Released 5/4/2022
4/4/2022
LaMoure
Commercial Turkey/Chicken
Released 5/6/2022
4/2/2022
LaMoure
Commercial Turkey/Chicken
Released 5/6/2022
4/1/2022
Dickey
Commercial Turkey
Released 5/4/2022
3/31/2022
Dickey
Backyard Chicken Flock
Released 5/4/2022
3/29/2022
Kidder
Backyard Mixed Flock
Released 5/4/2022

Total number of sites affected: 24
Total number of counties: 17